The Holy Spirit in the New Testament

THE SPIRIT AND THE CIRCUMCISION OF THE HEART.

The circumcision of the heart promised by Yahweh was expanded in the New Covenant through the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah and
Ezekiel.

The Redeemer will come to Zion, and to those in Jacob who turn from transgression. This is the LORD’s declaration. “As for Me, this is My covenant with them,” says the LORD: “My Spirit who is on you, and My words that I have put in your mouth, will not depart from your mouth, or from the mouth of your children, or from the mouth of your children’s children, from now on and forever,” says the LORD (Isaiah 59:20-21).

“Look, the days are coming”—this is the LORD’s declaration—“when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. This one will not be like the covenant I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt—a covenant they broke even though I had married them”—the LORD’s declaration. “Instead, this is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after those days”—the LORD’s declaration. “I will place My law within them and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be My people. No longer will one teach his neighbor or his brother, saying: Know the LORD, for they will all know Me, from the least to the greatest of them”—the LORD’s declaration. “For I will forgive their wrongdoing and never again remember their sin” (Jeremiah 31:34).

I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; I will remove your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh. I will place My Spirit within you and cause you to follow My statutes and carefully observe My ordinances (Ezekiel 36:27).

Nine significant things are stated in the New Covenant.

1. The Redeemer and the Spirit are promised to those who turn from transgression.
2. The Spirit will change one’s speech symbolic of a changed heart (cf. James 3:9-12).
3. The Law will be written on one’s heart by Yahweh’s Spirit.
4. The believer will know God personally through the Spirit.
5. The believer will be forgiven of his or her sins.
6. The believer will receive a new heart and a new spirit.
7. The believer will have Yahweh’s Spirit within him or her.
8. The Spirit will cause the believer to follow Yahweh’s statutes.
9. The believer is carefully to observe Yahweh’s ordinances.

The night Jesus was betrayed, John’s Gospel focuses on Jesus’ teaching regarding the Spirit, while the Synoptic Gospels focus on the institution of Holy Communion, which ultimately results in the giving of the Spirit.

In the same way He also took the cup after supper and said, “This cup is the new covenant established by My blood; it is shed for you” (Luke 22:20).

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